The mined crystal usually needs to be processed to maximize its value and function to meet people’s needs for viewing, wearing, and collecting. According to the crystal raw materials and the purpose of processing, the processing of crystals is generally divided into processing of rough crystals, crystal jewelry and crystal carvings. Crystal jewelry processing mainly includes curved, faceted, bead and special shapes.
Processing of rough crystal
Rough crystals are for the purpose of viewing the natural form of crystals. Good-looking single crystals, double crystals, crystal clusters and crystal aggregates can be used as rough crystals, which usually only require simple processing or even processing to become of ornamental value. , The gem of artistic value and collection value. The processing method includes a base and simple modification. For the crystal geode, the focus is to highlight the beauty of its natural shape, which needs to be cut into two halves or special shapes, and then polished. For the crystal in the geode, such as the Brazilian amethyst cave, it is necessary to cut the crystal cave in half with a diamond saw to shape the surrounding rock and appearance.
Processing of cabochon crystal
The cabochon type is also called the plain or convex type. It is mainly used for transparent crystals with special inclusions, and all opaque and translucent crystals. Crystals with special inclusions can have special optical effects after being processed into a curved surface, such as starlight crystals and cat’s eye crystals. The specific process flow is: line drawing, blanking, ring shape, rod loading, pre-forming, fine grinding, polishing and post-processing.
Processing of faceted crystal
Faceted type is also called edge type, turning surface type and small surface type. It is composed of many small faces with a certain geometric shape, forming a regular three-dimensional figure. There are many cut shapes, mainly round polyhedrons, rose shapes, stepped shapes and mixed shapes. Faceted gemstones must be designed before processing, including the design of cut, color, weight, flaws, inclusions, and proportions. After the design is completed, the processing is carried out. The processing process is divided into blanking (referring to cutting the raw materials into small pieces, and then using a repair saw to cut out the prototype of the gem style), the upper rod, the circle, and the grinding of the crown (using the gem The engraving machine drives the blank to grind small faces of different angles on the grinding disc. The engraving machine generally uses an octagonal hand engraving grinder and a mechanical hand engraving grinder), crown polishing, upper rod, top grinding and polishing, post-processing, etc. .
Bead crystal processing
The geometric form of the bead-shaped cut is relatively simple. It is divided into spherical beads, oval beads, cylindrical beads and other shaped beads. They are mainly used to make necklaces, bracelets, breast pendants and other jewelry. It is necessary to connect multiple beads in series. The beauty shown is not only reflected in the shape, color and quality of the individual beads, but also in the shape and collocation of the entire string of beads. The processing process of bead crystals includes stone opening, blanking, pre-forming, rough grinding, fine grinding, polishing, waxing, perforation and so on.
Processing of special-shaped crystals
Special-shaped crystals include simple free type, engraved type and free type. The simple free type is a shape that people deliberately crafted based on the natural shape and color of the rough stone; the sculpture type also belongs to the free type, and the shape is usually more complex, or even a combination of multiple free types; the free type is that people follow the nature completely The shape of the rough stone is given by simple edge grinding, bevelling and polishing.
Engraved crystal processing
For larger single crystal crystals, the size, thickness, and size of the original stone should be used to determine which carvings to make. For high-quality crystal products, the flaws of the original stone should be deducted. Experienced crystal grinding masters must be very accurate in their judgments on rough cutting and grinding. The actual grinding process is roughly divided into four steps: (1) the selection of crystal raw materials; (2) the cutting of rough crystals; (3) the shaping of rough crystals; (4) the deep processing of rough crystals after shaping. The processing process is very complicated, including polishing, polishing, and decorating techniques, and every link is indispensable. Polishing craftsmanship is the main link in making sculptures. As the name suggests, polishing is to polish and polish, and finally create a shape. After having the shape, it needs to be polished, and polishing is directly related to the beauty of the carved part. After the completion of these two processes, decoration is required, one is to beautify the sculptures, and the other is to protect the sculptures. It is usually necessary to design the shape of the final artwork according to the characteristics of the raw materials.